Activity of mannose-binding lectin on bacterial-infected chickens—A review.

Idowu, Peter A.
Idowu, Adeola P.
Zishiri, Oliver T.
Mpofu, Takalani J.
Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.
Nephawe, Khathutshelo A.
Mtileni, Bohani
In recent years, diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria have profoundly impacted chicken production by causing economic loss in chicken products and by-product revenues. MBL (mannosebinding lectin) is part of the innate immune system (IIS), which is the host’s first line defense against pathogens. The IIS functions centrally by identifying pathogen-specific microorganism-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) with the help of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Studies have classified mannose-binding lectin (MBL) as one of the PRR molecules which belong to the C-type lectin family. The protective role of MBL lies in its ability to activate the complement system via the lectin pathway and there seems to be a direct link between the chicken’s health status and the MBL concentration in the serum. Several methods have been used to detect the presence, the level and the structure of MBL in chickens such as Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) among others. The concentration of MBL in the chicken ranges from 0.4 to 35 g/mL and can be at peak levels at three to nine days at entry of pathogens. The variations observed are known to depend on the bacterial strains, breed and age of the chicken and possibly the feed manipulation strategies. However, when chicken MBL (MBL) becomes deficient, it can result in malfunctioning of the innate immune system, which can predispose chickens to diseases. This article aimed to discuss the importance and components of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in chickens, its mode of actions, and the different methods used to detect MBL. Therefore, more studies are recommended to explore the causes for low and high MBL production in chicken breeds and the possible effect of feed manipulation strategies in enhancing MBL production.
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Chickens, Use of antibiotics, Innate immunity, Lectin pathway, Complement system, Mannose-binding lectin quantification method
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